【運動】為什麼你該重量訓練(二)有病治病,沒病強身

一分鐘健身教室 於 25/07/2018 發表 收藏文章
撇除史考特不熟悉的中藥不談,我不曾聽說過有任何一種藥物是「有病治病,沒病強身」的。癌症需要化療藥治療、感染需要抗生素、高血壓要降血壓藥,但這幾種藥物對沒病的健康人來說,絕對沒有強身的功效,只有副作用的風險。


絕大多數宣稱有健康功效的保健食品,也都沒有治療疾病的功效。


就我所知,重量訓練是唯一符合「有病治病,沒病強身」的好東西。如果有一天我能把重量訓練當成藥物開立,那麼它絕對是我最常處方的藥物。





預防兼治療


以下這張圖是2016年台灣十大死因,這些疾病不僅帶走人們的生命,更造成許多長期失能的問題。






我整理了目前有的科學研究,將其濃縮至精華,來說明重量訓練如何幫助人們預防及治療這些疾病。



治療預防
癌症經治療後的癌症存活者接受重量訓練,肌力、肌肉量、行走距離、生活品質均上升,體脂肪及疲勞感下降(1)健康且規律重量訓練者死於癌症的機率比一般人低31%(2)
心血管疾病冠心病患者進行有氧加重量訓練,比傳統單做有氧運動更能提升各項體能指標(3,4)重量訓練能改善肥胖、高血壓、高血糖、高血脂、胰島素阻抗等心血管疾病因子(5,6,7)
肺炎肺炎往往與高齡、衰弱、免疫低下、失能臥床相關,重量訓練可能藉由減少上述危險因子,來降低肺炎發生
腦血管疾病重訓增強中風患者下肢肌力、改善代謝指標、增進認知功能,對於行走能力的提升則尚不明確(8,9)同上,腦血管疾病及心血管疾病的危險因子類似,都可以藉由重量訓練來降低風險
事故傷害股骨骨折術後復健加入阻力訓練,能使患者恢復行走能力(10)事故傷害以車禍為大宗,重訓雖不能預防意外產生,但有證據顯示肌肉量多的傷患較容易從重大創傷、燒燙傷中復原(11)。此外跌倒是老年人事故傷害之重要原因,重量訓練可預防衰弱族群的跌倒(12,13)
糖尿病美國糖尿病醫學會建議,糖尿病患從事重量訓練可幫助血糖控制(14)重量訓練增加肌肉吸收葡萄糖的能力、增加胰島素敏感度、降低糖尿病風險(15)
下呼吸道疾病慢性阻塞性肺疾病患的復健計畫應包含重量訓練,可改善肌力、呼吸困難及肺功能(16)
高血壓重量訓練有降高血壓的功效(17)同左,重量訓練在正常血壓或高血壓前期者身上也有降血壓效果
腎病腎臟病患做重量訓練的研究數量不多,初步證據顯示對肌力、肌肉量、生活品質都有幫助(18)根據國內資料,糖尿病與高血壓是腎病的重要原因,因此重量訓練也對腎病的預防有幫助(19)
肝病在台灣病毒性肝炎與酒精性肝炎是肝病的主要原因,重量訓練作為肝病預防的角色較小



(失智症並不在十大死因內,是因為失智很少直接造成病患死亡,反而是失能所造成的續發性問題如營養不良、吞嚥困難、褥瘡等。運動與重量訓練同時有治療及預防失智的功效,我過去在這個影片中有詳細討論。)




結語


十大死因中,僅有肺炎與肝病完全無法藉由重訓預防或治療,沒有任何一種已知的藥物或健康食品,有如此廣泛的適應症。如果各位自認為熱愛生命,都應該開始向最近的健身房報到。

參考資料

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  2. Stamatakis E, Lee IM, Bennie J, et al. Does Strength-Promoting Exercise Confer Unique Health Benefits? A Pooled Analysis of Data on 11 Population Cohorts With All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Mortality Endpoints. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(5):1102-1112.
  3. Marzolini S, Oh PI, Brooks D. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training versus aerobic training alone in individuals with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012;19(1):81-94.
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  11. Wolfe RR. The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(3):475-482.
  12. Buchner DM, Cress ME, de Lateur BJ, et al. The effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, fall risk, and health services use in community-living older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(4):M218-224.
  13. Liu-Ambrose T, Khan KM, Eng JJ, Janssen PA, Lord SR, McKay HA. Resistance and agility training reduce fall risk in women aged 75 to 85 with low bone mass: a 6-month randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(5):657-665.
  14. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, et al. Physical Activity/Exercise and Diabetes: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(11):2065-2079.
  15. Strasser B, Pesta D. Resistance training for diabetes prevention and therapy: experimental findings and molecular mechanisms. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:805217.
  16. Liao WH, Chen JW, Chen X, et al. Impact of Resistance Training in Subjects With COPD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Respir Care. 2015;60(8):1130-1145.
  17. Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH, Coeckelberghs E, Vanhees L. Impact of resistance training on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Hypertension. 2011;58(5):950-958.
  18. Heiwe S, Jacobson SH. Exercise training in adults with CKD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;64(3):383-393.
  19. 彭渝森,腎臟病在台灣 (Retrieved from http://www.ntcma.org/98/twckd.pdf)

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